Psychologists diagnose learning problems and mental distress and disorders, including:
- Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of developmental disabilities, which affect a person’s ability to communicate and interact with others. Children with ASD have difficulties in three key areas – difficulties in communication, difficulties in social interaction, and impairments in interests, activities and other behaviours. Asperger syndrome was generally considered to be on the “high functioning” end of the autism spectrum.
- Intellectual Disability
Children with intellectual disability (ID) show significant difficulties in cognitive and adaptive functioning. Cognitive functioning refers to the ability to think, concentrate, formulate ideas, reason and remember. Adaptive functioning refers to the ability to handle daily demands in life independently, and includes communication, self-care, home living, motor, social and interpersonal skills.
- Learning Disability
Children with learning disabilities may have difficulties with reading, writing, spelling, recalling and organising information. This is caused by differences in the way their brains developed. Learning disabilities are not due to disadvantaged backgrounds, poor teaching, and lack of education or low intelligence. Many children with learning disabilities have very good thinking and reasoning abilities. With appropriate support, these children can overcome their learning difficulties and achieve academic success.
Among children in mainstream schools, two of the most common disabilities that affect learning are dyslexia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Dyslexia is a specific learning difficulty that mainly affects the development of literacy and language-related skills. The core symptoms of ADHD include inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity.
- Hearing Impairment
Hearing impairment refers to both complete and partial loss of the ability to hear. Hearing loss can be conductive (may be treatable) or sensor neural (which will require hearing aids or cochlear implants). The psychologists treat the depression and emotional stress that come about with the impairment.
- Visual Impairment
Visual impairment refers to the limitation or absence of sight, which includes partial sight or blindness. It is a severe reduction in vision that cannot be corrected with standard glasses or contact lenses, and reduces a person’s ability to function in some or all tasks. The psychologists treat the depression and emotional stress that come about with the impairment.
- Celebral Palsy
Cerebral palsy is a condition caused by brain injuries or abnormalities. Children with cerebral palsy may suffer a loss of muscle coordination and motor skills, speech difficulties, learning disabilities or other problems.
- Trauma from highly-stressed situations such as frequent parent-quarreling, parental neglect, child abuse etc.
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